C++ vs Java | Which One You Should Learn And Why?


Most of the students are not able to differentiate between C++ vs Java. Both of these programming languages are high-level programming languages. And these languages follow an object-oriented programming paradigm. Apart from that, there are lots of similarities between these programming languages. But still, C++ and Java are having lots of differences. Let’s start this comparison to understand the 

Introduction to C++

C++ is a general-purpose programming language, and it is an extension of the C programming language. It is also known as C with Classes. C++ is offering a high-level control system as well as cross-platform application development. It is used to create high-performance applications for desktops. Bjarne Stroustrup created it. C++ is known as the hardware level programming language. That has more control over the device hardware than the software part. C++ supports socket programming, which is used to access the internet from the C++ itself. It also manipulates the memory address with the help of pointers. It uses the header files to include different libraries within a single program. C++ uses the scope resolution operator used to define the methods that are external to the defined classes in a program.

Introduction to Java

Java is a statistically typed object-oriented programming language. It has extensive documentation that is known as Javadoc. It is offering the built in support for the internet. Java doesn’t have support for the goto statements. Java also doesn’t have support for the destructors; that is why the exception handling and garbage collection are quite different in Java programming. It is the type-safe programming language. Java has a special mechanism that is JVM. It is used for code optimization; therefore, it is the most powerful programming language. Java has in-built support for the thread; therefore, you need to inherit it for creating the new thread. It is offering the import functionality to include classes and different methods within the single program. It also uses the dot (.) operator to qualify the classes within the program. 

C++ vs Java

Let’s start with the basic comparison between C++ vs Java. C++ is using pointers while Java doesn’t use the pointer concepts. C++ uses the compiler to run and compile the code. The compiler works on the simple phenomena to convert the source code into the machine level language. It makes C++ the platform-independent programming language.


On the other hand, Java uses the bytecode to compile the code. In Java, the source code is first converted into the bytecode. The bytecode interpreted by the interpreter, and then finally, the compiler compiles the code and executes it in the machine language. Java is also a platform-independent programming language. You can use the threads in C++.

On the other hand, Java uses thread implicitly. We know the thread playing a crucial role in the processor because the latest version of C++ is also supporting the threads. You will not find some of the C++ concepts in Java i.e., structures, union, operator overloading, pointers, multiple inheritances, etc. But Java supports the method overloading concept.

Memory Management

The memory management is quite better in Java as compared with C++. The major difference between C++ and Java in terms of memory management is that C++ allows you to control memory management by using pointers manually. It also supports union and structure to manage the program memory more efficiently. On the other hand, Java has built in support for memory management. It is offering threads and interfaces for memory management. 



C++ is not offering high-quality libraries to programmers. Most of the C++ libraries are of low-level functionalities. On the other hand, Java is known as known for its high-level libraries. Java has the support of extensive libraries to perform a variety of tasks. 


Program Handling

In C++, the methods and data can also reside outside classes. C++ uses the global file, namespace, and the scope resolution operator to access the methods and data outside the class. On the other hand, all the methods and data reside within the class in Java.


C++ code is not that portable because you need to recompile the code on different platforms. On the other hand, Java programs can be run on any device without recompilation. All you need to have the Java installed on your system or device.

Mainly used for

C++ is mainly used for developing operating systems, games, databases, etc. On the other hand, Java is mainly used for application programming. It is used to create Windows applications, web applications, and mobile applications.

Documentation comment

C++ doesn’t have the support for documentation comments. On the other hand, Java offers the best documentation comment support, i.e. (/** … */) for the Java Source Code.


Multiple Inheritance

C++ has extensive support for multiple inheritances. Sometimes multiple inheritances cause problems in C++. But C + + fixes that problem by using the virtual keywords. 

On the other hand, Java only supports single inheritance. But if you want to have the same effect of multiple inheritances, then you can use the interfaces in Java. 

Documentation Comment

There is no support for documentation comments in C++. On the other hand, Java has inbuilt support for the documentation comments. Most of the Java source files have their documentation.

Source Code & Class Relationship

In C++, you can have your choice filename; you need not choose the filename associated with the source code of the program. There can be many classes in the C++ program, and you need not worry about the filename. The filename need not be the same as the class names. 


On the other hand, Java has a close relationship between its classes and filename. The class that is having the major source code of the program and the filename should be the same.

Compatibility With Other Languages

C++ is compatible with most of the programming languages in the world. On the other hand, Java is not compatible with other programming languages. 

Type Of Programming Language

C++ has the compatibility of both programming paradigms i.e., procedural as well as an object-oriented programming language. On the other hand, Java is a completely object-oriented programming language.

Parameter Passing

C++ uses both passes by values and Pass by reference. C++ has extensive support for both of these passing parameters techniques. On the other hand, Java only supports the pass by value parameter passing technique.



Now you have seen the major difference between C++ vs Java. Both of these programming languages support OOPS concepts. C++ is not completely a high-level programming language. It is a low-level programming language that has the support of some high-level programming features. It also offers some kind of flexibility at the runtime of the program. C++ also offers you the manual memory management process that is quite helpful for you. With the memory management, you can reduce the chances of memory leaks in C++.

On the other hand, Java offers a world-class garbage collector mechanism that helps you keep track of the allocated memory to the object and automatically frees up the memory when the object is no longer in use. Both Java and C++ have the access specifier that has full control over the scope of the attributes, i.e., for, within the class, you can use private, for, within the package, you can use protection the class, you can use Public. Java also provides automatic polymorphism using the explicit method of overriding.

In the end, I would like to say that if you want to do hardware-level coding, then C++ is the best option for you. Most of the games, databases, operating systems, cloud systems, compilers are using the C++ code to run their functionality. It is still the base of some of the leading applications and technologies in the world. On the other hand, if you are more interested in developing desktop applications, than you should go with Java. Nowadays, Java is also playing a crucial role in developing data warehouses.


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