If you are a computer science student and have more interest in software development, you probably get into a dilemma about which one is better for you between Java vs C#. In the past few years, computer science students are searching for C# vs Java. Both of these programming languages are giving neck-to-neck competition to each other. Here in this blog, I am going to explain you the difference between C# and Java.
Java vs C#
Let’s start with the basic comparison to both of these programming languages. Java is one of the oldest object-oriented programming languages in the world. It is a general-purpose programming language based on the class that is why it is one of the most popular languages. Java has built on the principle that is to write once, run anywhere. It means that you need to write Java code once on a system, and you can run it on any system. Java works on a simple mechanism, i.e., its source code converted to bytecode by Java compiler. Then, generated code can be run on any operating system with JRE. Nowadays, almost all operating systems have built-in support for JRE.
On the other hand, C# is also an object-oriented programming language. It is also a generic, functional, and component-oriented programming language. C# is a successor of C++ languages that Microsoft creates. Nowadays, it is used to build a variety of applications for Windows. Apart from that, you can also create games using C#. Web developers also love it for developing web applications. It is also a quite effective and easy-to-use programming language for developing mobile applications. It was just a basic comparison between C# vs Java. Now let’s talk about them more deeply to learn more about these programming languages. Let’s explore them one by one:-
If you have any idea about programming languages, you might be aware of the Java programming language. If you don’t have any idea what Java is, then be with us. We are going to explore this programming language. Java was developed in the year 1995 by James Gostling at Sun Microsystem. Java’s syntax is quite similar to C++. Even most of its syntax and functions are derived from C++. However, it is a better alternative to C++. Whenever you download Java from its official site, you get JDK, i.e., Java Development Kit. JDK has lots of components that are used for different purposes. But if you are going to use Java for a specific purpose, you need not have all these components.
Java is also getting regular updates, and the recent release of Java is JDK 12.
Features of Java
It is the best programming language for desktop application development. Java is a platform-independent programming language, i.e., the code written in Java can be run on any operating system without any modification. But keep in mind that the operating system should have JRE installed on it. If not, then you can download it from its official website. In Java, the source code is converted into bytecode by the compiler.
After that, the JVM that is a part of JRE converts the bytecode into machine code. Then the code is executed by the machine. Java also extended itself; nowadays, it is used for networking, developing websites, desktop applications, and mobile applications. Apart from that, it is also used for data science. Java is an object-oriented programming language, and if you are aware of object-oriented concepts, then Java. It is a robust programming language that has built in exception handlings and automatic garbage collectors. Java is the most secure programming language in the world. It also has multithreading support and also a high-performance programming language.
C# is an initiative of Microsoft to create their version of the C++ language. Thus C# was developed by Microsoft with its .Net framework in the year 2000. Andres Heijnerg led the development team of C#. The latest version of C# is 7.2 that was released in the year 2017. It is one of the most preferred programming languages for web and game development. It offers many cross-platform tools that are easy to obtain for developers to create desktop applications. You can also create a cross-platform application using C#. In other words, you can create apps for windows, android, iOS, macOS, and Linux.
Features of C#
It makes it the world’s incredible programming language. C# is offering numerous features to the developers. You can perform the complex task with ease in C#. It has the best memory management and garbage collection support. Thus, you need to worry about the back end of the programming language and concentrate on developing the applications and games’ logic. It is one of the cleanest programming languages. It is one of the best high-level and statically typed languages.
The code is written in C# is thoroughly checked before it turns into an application or game. It is not easy to learn a programming language, and you need to invest some quality time to master its concepts. If you want to build powerful and cross-platform applications using C#, you need to learn a substantial code. It is getting more popular with every new release of Microsoft Visual Studio. C# is a multi-paradigm programming language. It is a strongly typed, lexically, scoped, generic, object-oriented, and component language. It is designed for the CLI, i.e., common language Infrastructure.
Similarities Between Java and C#
- Object-Oriented: Both of these programming languages are object-oriented. Therefore these programming languages support almost every feature of OOPs, i.e., encapsulation, polymorphism, inheritance, and more.
- Dependence from C and C++: Both of these programming languages are inspired by C and C++. Even these programming languages have acquired the features of these programming languages.
- Intermediate Language Code Generation: In both of these programming languages, you will find an intermediate language code. In the case of Java, its compiler generates bytecode, and in the case of C#, its compiler generates Microsoft Intermediate Language code.
- Advance Features: You can also find the advanced features in both of these programming languages, such as automatic garbage collection.
- Syntax: There is almost a similar syntax in both of these programming languages.
Comparison between C# vs Java in Tabular Form
|Creation||Java is designed and developed by Sun Microsystems.||C# is designed and developed as part of Microsoft’s .NET initiative by Tech Giant Microsoft.|
|Scope||It is used for Server-side interaction.||It is also a Server-side language along with a good programming foundation.|
|Built-in Datatype||When the built-in data types that are passed by value in Java then they are called simple types.||When the built-in data types that are passed by value in C# are known as primitive types.|
|Arrays||Arrays are a direct specialization of Objects in Java programming language.||Arrays are a specialization of System in C#.|
|Support for conditional compilation.||Java doesn’t support for conditional compilation in Java language||There is proper support for conditional compilation features with the help of preprocessor directives in C#.|
|Support for Goto statement.||Java doesn’t have any support for goto statements.||The goto statement is well supported by C#.|
|Structure and unions||There is not any use of structures and unions in Java.||There are some of the use of structures and unions.|
|Programming paradigms||Java is an object oriented programming language||C# is a multi paradigm programming language. It is object-oriented, component-oriented, strong typing, functional.|
|IDE||There are lots of IDE available for Java i.e. Eclipse, NetBeans, IntelliJ IDEA||C# has a limited support of IDE i.e. Visual Studio, MonoDevelop|
|Operator Overloading||Java doesn’t support operator overloading.||There is a best support for operator overloading for multiple operators in C#.|
|Number of Public Classes||Java has only a single public class inside the source code, the source code of Java.||C# has multiple classes included in the source code of C#.|
|Pointers||There is no use of Pointers in Java. That is why it doesn’t support pointers.||There is a limited use of pointers in C#. It uses pointers only in unsafe mode.|
|Floating point||Java guarantees that the floating points will be the same on different platforms because of its strictfp keyword.||C# has no guarantee that the floating points will remain the same across different platforms of C# code.|
|Used by Brands||Airbnb, Instagram, Spotify, Netflix.||Stack Exchange, Microsoft, Coderus, Docplanner, etc.|
|Salary Range||The Java developer earns approximately $102,633 annually per average.||The C# sharp developer” earn approximately $108,145 annually on an average.|
Key Differences Between Java vs C#
Below is the list of points that explain the key differences between Java and
Java is one of the leading programming languages to develop complex web applications. It is also used to create powerful desktop applications. Apart from that, it is the best choice to create custom data warehouses in data science. On the other hand, C# is one of the leading programming languages to develop games and mobile applications. It is also the first choice to create cross-platform applications.
Java code executes on JRE(Java Runtime Environment); it requires a Java Development Kit that includes Java Compiler and runtime environment to run Java Code on any machine that has Java installed on it. On the other hand, C# code is executed on CLR (Common Language Runtime). C# libraries that are being shipped with .NET framework with IDE like Visual Studio.
The code written in Java is compiled the compiled into bytecode, and then JRE converts the bytecode into machine code. Thus the code can be run on any Java-enabled platform. On the other hand, in C#, the code is interpreted into bytecode(MSIL), then the code is compiled by CLR, and then finally JIT compiler converts bytecode(MSIL) into native machine code.
In Java, there is a clear difference between checked and unchecked exceptions. On the other hand, C# doesn’t have any mechanism to differentiate checked and unchecked expectations. It follows the minimalistic approach by choosing only one type of exception.
Java libraries have one of the vast and well-documented ecosystems that help develop functionality at a decent pace. On the other hand, C# libraries work within the Microsoft ecosystem that is quite limited compared to Java.
Java is one of the oldest programming languages in the world. That is why it is offering a huge community that is offering open source libraries. You can perform almost all the tasks that can be done with Java because of these libraries. On the other hand. C# is a modern programming language compared with Java and has limited support like the Microsoft community’s support.
We have seen how Java is better than C# and how C# has an advantage over Java as we have seen that Java is evolving with every passing year. Thousands of libraries are keeping adding and creating new tools. There are many programming languages are keep emerging, i.e., Scala, Groovy, etc. Java was the official language to develop Android applications. There are billions of apps developed in Java, and the number is still counting.
On the other hand, C# was built by Microsoft for its .Net framework, and it is used for the implementations of CLI. You can create almost any kind of application for Microsoft-ecosystem using C#. But nowadays, you can create cross-platform applications using this programming language. The tools and libraries of C# are being updated with every passing year. There are lots of similarities between these programming languages. We can’t say that Java is better than C# and vice versa because these programming languages are the best in their field. You can say one is better than another based on some comparison points, likewise the development platforms, ecosystem, available libraries, syntaxes, ease of learning, support, and many more. Both of these programming languages are offering lots of incredible features. As a developer, you can also compare these programming languages based on some more criteria.